欧盟2017年电子政务基准报告(英文 190 页)

欧盟2017年电子政务基准报告(英文 190 页)


Table of contents

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 11

1. INTRODUCTION 16

1.1. What is this report about 16

1.2. Who should read the report 16

1.3. Why read the report 17

1.4. How to read the report 17

2. MEASURING EGOVERNMENT 20

2.1. The new eGovernment Action Plan and its policy priorities for 2016-2020 20

2.2. The eGovernment Benchmark method 21

2.2.1. The measurement framework: four top-level benchmarks 21

2.2.2. Updates in the method of the eGovernment Benchmark 2016 22

2.2.3. Method of data collection 23

2.2.4. The life events in 2016 25

PART ONE: A BIRD’S EYE VIEW ON EGOVERNMENT PROGRESS IN EUROPE 27

3. SYNTHESIS OF TOP-LEVEL BENCHMARKS 28

3.1. Overview of results for the top-level benchmarks 28

3.2. User Centricity 32

3.2.1. Online availability of services 33

3.2.2. Usability of services 35

3.2.3. Mobile friendliness of services per life event 36

3.2.4. Mandatory online services 38

3.3. Transparency 42

3.4. Cross-border Mobility 51

3.5. Key Enablers 54

3.6. Key findings 60

PART TWO: DEEP DIVE INTO THE LIFE EVENTS 63

4. STARTING UP A BUSINESS AND EARLY TRADING OPERATIONS 64

4.1. Introduction to life event 64

4.2. User Centricity 65

4.2.1 Online availability 65

4.2.2. Mobile friendliness 67

4.3. Transparency 68

4.4. Cross-border Mobility 68

4.5. Key Enablers 70

4.6. Progress across Europe 72

5. FAMILY 77

5.1. Introduction to life event 78

5.2. User Centricity 79

5.2.1. Online availability 79

5.2.2. Mobile friendliness 79

5.3. Transparency 81

5.4. Key Enablers 81

5.5. Progress across Europe 83

6. LOSING AND FINDING A JOB 87

6.1. Introduction to life event 88

6.2. User Centricity 88

6.2.1. Online availability 89

6.2.2. Mobile friendliness 89

6.3. Transparency 91

6.4. Key Enablers 91

6.5. Progress across Europe 94

7. STUDYING 97

7.1. Introduction to life event 98

7.2. User Centricity 99

7.2.1. Online Availability 99

7.2.2. Mobile friendliness 99

7.3. Transparency 100

7.4. Cross-border Mobility 101

7.5. Key Enablers 102

7.6. Progress across Europe 104

8. THE EXPLORATIVE BENCHLEARNING PERSPECTIVE 107

8.1. The benchlearning approach 108

8.1.1. Introduction to the benchlearning perspective 108

8.1.2. The framework of the explorative benchlearning perspective 108

8.2. Step 1: Measuring Country Performance through the absolute indicators Penetration and Digitisation 109

8.2.1. Penetration 109

8.2.2. Digitisation 110

8.2.3. Understanding performances 111

8.3. Step 2: Understanding the impact of context-specific variables on performances 114

8.3.1. Methodology 114

8.3.2. Users’ characteristics that influence eGovernment performance 114

8.3.3. Government’s characteristics that influence eGovernment performance 115

8.3.4. Context Characteristics that influence eGovernment performance 115

8.3.5. Relative indicators analysis 116

8.4. Comparing countries to understand and improve performance 119

8.4.1. Methodology and data analysis 119

8.4.2. Users characteristics’ impact on eGovernment performance 120

8.4.3. Government characteristics’ impact on eGovernment performance 122

8.4.4. Context characteristics’ impact on eGovernment performance 125

8.4.5. The benchlearning perspective 127

8.5. Improving the framework: considerations for future applications 131

ANNEX I: RELATIVE INDICATORS 132

ANNEX II: LONG LIST OF GOOD PRACTICES 136

II.1 User centricity 136

II.2 Transparency 147

II.3 Key enablers 155

II.4 Starting up a business and trading operations 169

II.5 Family 175

II.6 Losing and finding a job 180

II.7 Studying 184



Figure 1: eGovernment Action Plan 2016-2020 21

Figure 2: Overview of Action Plan Principles and benchmark method update 23

Figure 3: Overview of life events under assessment in 2012 - 2016 25

Figure 4: Average scores for the top-level benchmarks across the 2016 life events (EU28+, %) 29

Figure 5: Average scores of the four top-level benchmarks per 2016 life event (EU28+, %) 31

Figure 6: Country ranking – average results for top-level benchmarks per 2016 life event (EU28+, %) 31

Figure 7: User Centricity per 2016 life event – average country results (EU28+, %) 33

Figure 8: Availability of services per country, average of results of 2016 life events (EU28+, %) 34

Figure 9: Availability of public services at central, regional and local level across EU28+ (2016, %) 35

Figure 10: Interaction options with public administration, average of 2016 life events (EU28+, %) 36

Figure 11: Mobile friendliness per 2016 life event (EU28+, %) 37

Figure 12: Mobile friendliness portals vs. services - average all life events (EU28+, %) 37

Figure 13: Overview of the extent to which countries have made services mandatory online 39

Figure 14: Scores in each Transparency indicator – average results of 2016 life events (EU28+, %) 44

Figure 15: Transparency of Service Delivery – average results of 2016 life events (EU28+, %) 44

Figure 16: Transparency of Personal Data – average results of 2016 life events (EU28+, %) 45

Figure 17: Number of countries per stage of maturity for monitoring who has consulted personal

data of the user (2016, EU28+, absolute numbers) 46

Figure 18: Transparency of Public Organisations – average results of 2016 life events (EU28+, %) 47

Figure 19: Online availability, Usability of services and use of Key Enablers in cross-border services –

average results of 2016 life events (EU28+, %) 51

Figure 20: Online availability of services for country nationals vs. non-country nationals (2016, EU28+, %) 52

Figure 21: Availability of Key Enablers - average results of 2016 life events (EU28+, %) 55

Figure 22: Use of Key Enablers in business and citizens service provision (2016, EU28+, %) 56

Figure 23: Availability of public services in life event Business (2016, EU28+, %) 66

Figure 24: Mobile-friendliness of services in life event Business (2016, EU28+, %) 67

Figure 25: Mobile-friendliness of portals in life event Business (2016, EU28+, %) 68

Figure 26: Transparency of Service Delivery, average per service in life event Business (2016, EU28+, %) 69

Figure 27: Cross-border availability of services in life event Business – average results (2016, EU28+, %) 69

Figure 28: Availability of eID, eDocuments and Authentic Sources per service in life event Business –

average across EU28+ (2016, %) 71

Figure 29: Correlation online availability and Key Enabler Authentic Sources - life event Business

by country (2016, EU28+, %) 72

Figure 30: Country ranking in life Event Business - average of top level benchmarks (2016, EU28+, %) 73

Figure 31: Availability of each public service in the life event Family (online, illustrating automated,

fully online, information online, via portal, offline) (EU28+, %) 80

Figure 32: Country ranking: Mobile friendliness of services in life event Family (2016, EU28+, %) 80

Figure 33: Country ranking: Mobile friendliness of portal in life event Family (2016, EU28+, %) 80

Figure 34: Transparency of Service Delivery per service in life event Family (2016, EU28+, %) 81

Figure 35: Availability of eID, eDoc and Authentic Sources per service in life event Family – average

across EU28+ (2016, %) 82

Figure 36: Correlation Online Availability and Key Enabler Authentic Sources in life event Family (2016, %) 83

Figure 37: Country ranking in life event Family - average of top level benchmarks (2016, EU28+, %) 84

Figure 38: How services are made available for the Losing and finding a job life event (2016, EU28+, %) 89

Figure 39: Country ranking 2016: Mobile friendliness of services in life event Losing and finding a job (%) 90

Figure 40: Country ranking 2016: Mobile friendliness of portals in life event Losing and finding a job (%) 90

Figure 41: Transparency of Service Delivery per service in life event Job – average across EU28+ (%) 91

Figure 42: Availability of eID, eDocuments and Authentic Sources per service in life event Job – average

across EU28+ (2016, %) 92

Figure 43: Correlation Online Availability of services and Use of Authentic Sources in life event Job (2016, %) 93

Figure 44: Country ranking in life event Job - average of top level benchmarks (2016, %) 94

Figure 45: Availability of services in the life event Studying (2016, EU28+, %) 99

Figure 46: Mobile friendliness of services in life event Studying (2016, EU28+, %) 100

Figure 47: Mobile friendliness of portals in life event Studying (2016, EU28+, %) 100

Figure 48: Level of Transparency of Service Delivery per service in life event Studying (2016, EU28+, %) 101

Figure 49: Cross-border availability of services in life event Studying – average results (2016, EU28+, %) 102

Figure 50: Availability of eID, eDoc and Authentic Sources per service in life event Studying – average

cores (2016, EU28+, %) 103

Figure 51: Correlation online availability and use of Key Enabler Authentic Sources in life event Studying

(2016, EU28+, %) 104

Figure 52: Country ranking in life event Job - average of top level benchmarks (2016, EU28+, %) 104

Figure 53: Penetration indicator valorisation 109

Figure 54: Penetration index 110

Figure 55: Digitisation indicator valorisation 110

Figure 56: Digitisation Index 111

Figure 57: Scenarios for Penetration and Digitisation levels 112

Figure 58: Geographical scenarios’ distribution 112

Figure 58: Penetration vs Digitisation 113

Figure 59: Geographical positioning on relative indicators 117

Figure 60: Country performance on relative indicators compared to European average 118

Figure 61: Mock-up visualisation of the performance clusters 119

Figure 62: Digital skills vs Penetration 120

Figure 63: Digital skills vs Digitisation 121

Figure 64: ICT usage vs Penetration 121

Figure 65: ICT usage vs Digitisation 122

Figure 66: Quality vs Penetration 123

Figure 67: Quality vs Digitisation 123

Figure 68: Openness vs Penetration 124

Figure 69: Openness vs Digitisation 125

Figure 70: Connectivity vs Penetration 125

Figure 71: Connectivity vs Digitisation 126

Figure 72: Digital in the private sector vs Penetration 127

Figure 73: Digital in the private sector vs Digitisation 128

Figure 74: Penetration and Digitisation relative performances 129

Figure 75: Absolute and relative performances 130



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