OECD:2017教育概览(英文 456 页)

OECD:2017教育概览(英文 456 页)


Education at a Glance 2017

 (经济合作与发展组织)

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主要发现

来自科技领域的毕业生最容易就业,尽管不是全面的

在大多数经合发组织国家,成年人最受欢迎的大学学位是商业,行政或法律。经济合作与发展组织平均来说,23%的受过高等教育的25-64岁的大学毕业生在这三个学习领域中取得学位,而自然科学,统计学和数学方面则为5%。4%的信息和通信技术; 17%在工程,制造和施工。高等教育新入职人员的比例相似,表明对这些领域的兴趣依然稳定。

然而,对科学,技术,工程和数学(STEM)的兴趣随着更高的教育水平而增长,在这些领域从博士学位毕业的学生比2015年的学士学位水平几乎翻了一番。这些领域也受到国际高等教育的青睐在经济合作与发展组织国家学习的学生人数最多,几乎占三分之一,在科学领域也是如此。

由于这些计划与工业部门的紧密联系,高等职业道路的工程兴趣比高等教育高。大约三分之一的学生毕业于具有工程,制造和建筑学位的高中职业课程,是高等教育的两倍以上。

相关领域也受益于更高的就业率,反映了越来越多的创新驱动型社会的需求:信息和通信技术(ICT)毕业生可以预期就业率比从艺术和人文素质毕业的人高出7个百分点,或来自社会科学,新闻与信息。然而,与科学有关的领域的就业率是不平等的:自然科学,数学和统计学毕业生的艺术和人文毕业生的就业率更可能比工程师或信息和通信技术专家的比例要低。

毕业率的性别平等对于某些学习领域,特别是中等职业教育来说,仍然是遥远的梦想。性别平等在高等教育阶段有所改善,尽管在工程,制造和建筑方面,女性大约只有四分之一。另一方面,他们代表着健康和福利领域四分之三的四分之一。其他领域 - 如工商管理和法律; 自然科学,数学和统计学 - 几乎已经实现了新进入者之间的性别平等。

成年人今天普遍受教育程度较高,但有些仍然落后

自2000年以来,经合组织和伙伴国家的劳动力已经得到更高的教育水平。而在2000年,大多数年轻人已经获得了高中教育水平,今天,25-34岁的大多数学生拥有高等教育学位。经济合作与发展组织和伙伴国家大多数低龄以上的青年人的比例也有所下降,到2016年平均为16%。虽然更多的成年人达到中等水平,但方案的完成仍然存在问题。在具有真实队列数据的国家中,大约25%的入学学生在该计划的理论结束日期后两年没有毕业; 其中四分之一的学生不再接受教育。这是一个关键的损失:

具有高等教育学位的大人受益于其投资的实质性回报:比起仅完成高中毕业生的成年人,平均就业率可能会高出10个百分点。他们也是第一个从经济衰退中恢复的职位:具有高等学位学历的年轻人的就业率已经恢复到危机前的水平,而没有完成高中毕业生的就业率仍然落后。高等教育的成年人与受教育程度较低的同龄人相比,也不太可能患有抑郁症。由于这些原因,年轻人越来越倾向于追求提高学历的教育,而不是在义务教育结束时直接进入劳动力市场。2000年至2016年,

高等教育的总支出高于学生入学人数

支出增长速度高于各级学生,特别是三年级学生。2010年至2014年间,小学,中学和大专以外的非专上教育机构的支出增长了4%,尽管同期学生人数略有下降。相比之下,高等教育院校的开支总额同期增长了两倍多,反映了政府和社会对高等教育的重视。

虽然小学至大专院校的公共开支明显上升,但与经合组织国家平均而言,2010年至2014年的国内生产总值增长率并没有上升。这导致教育机构公共开支占同期GDP的百分比下降了2%。同样,经合组织国家的一半,在2010年至2014年期间,政府支出在政府支出总额中的初等教育和高等教育公共支出的份额也有所下降。

公共资金的份额明显高于高等教育。虽然公营部门仍然在小学,中学和大专以外的非高等教育机构提供91%的资金,但它只占高等教育总支出的70%,让家庭支付其余的费用。然而,2010年至2014年间,公共资金在机构教育支出中的份额基本保持稳定。

劳动力下降和劳动力老化令教学行业受到影响

教师是教育制度的支柱,但是这个职业对年轻学生越来越没有吸引力,教学人员越来越老,特别是在较高的教育水平。平均来说,经合组织国家,2015年至少有50%的小学到中学教师有33%,比2005年上升了3个百分点。此外,这个职业还主要由女性主导,他们组成了十名教师中的七名经合组织国家的平均水平。然而,在更高的教育水平方面,性别平等有所提高,而在小学前的教师则为97%,高等教育占43%。

与其他同等受过教育的全职工作人员相比,教师薪水较低。这是吸引年轻人教学的重要障碍。虽然教育水平上升,但高等教育专职工作人员的工资仍然在78%至94%之间。2008年的经济衰退直接影响了一些国家的教师薪水,这些薪水被冻结或削减。2005年至2015年间,三分之一的国家和经济数据中,教师的法定工资实际下降。

其他发现

由于幼儿教育的公共投资较少,在这一级别入读私立机构的儿童比例远远高于小学和中学教育。

一般高中教育课程比职业课程更受欢迎:15-19岁的学生中有37%参加了普通高中教育课程,而职业课程则为25%,尽管职业课程是许多教育体系的重要组成部分国家。

资金支持有助于抵消某些大专院校收取的高额学费的负担; 澳大利亚,英国(英国)和美国的75%或以上的学生受益于公共贷款或奖学金/赠款。

有超过一半的国家和经济体可以找到有公开和/或私立大专院校的公开招生制度。高中毕业后进行的国家/中央考试以及高等院校管理的入学考试,被广泛应用于一级学位课程。

Table of Content

Editorial: Building for the future..............11

Introduction: The indicators and their framework .....13

Reader’s guide ...............17

Executive summary ..........23

The education sustainable developmentgoal ..........27

CHAPTER A THE OUTPUT OF EDUCATIONALINSTITUTIONS AND THE IMPACT OF LEARNING........41

Indicator A1 To what level have adults studied? ..........42

Table A1.1. Educational attainment of 25-64 year-olds (2016) .......50

Table A1.2. Trends in educational attainment of 25-34 year-olds (2000, 2005, 2010, 2015

and 2016) ..............51

Table A1.3. Field of study among tertiary-educated 25-64 year-olds (2016) .............52

Indicator A2 Who is expected to graduate from upper secondary education? ......54

Table A2.1. Profile of upper secondary graduates from general and vocational

programmes (2015) .......61

Table A2.2. Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary graduation rates (2015) ...........62

Table A2.3. Trends in upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary first-time

graduation rates (2005, 2010 and 2015) ..............63

Indicator A3 Who is expected to graduate from tertiary education? .............64

Table A3.1. Distribution of tertiary graduates, by field of study (2015) ...............72

Table A3.2. Profile of a first-time tertiary graduate (2015) .......73

Table A3.3. First-time graduation rates, by tertiary level (2015) ..............74

Indicator A4 To what extent does parents’ education influence their children’s

educational attainment? ........76

Table A4.1. Tertiary attainment among adults whose parents both have less than tertiary

educationalattainment, by type of programme and age group (2012 or 2015)...............85

Table A4.2. Tertiary attainment among adults who have at least one parent who attained

tertiaryeducation, by type of programme and age group (2012 or 2015) ........86

Table A4.3. Changes in the likelihood of having a tertiary-type A or an advanced research

programmedegree, by gender, age group and parents’ educational attainment

(2012 or 2015) ...........87

Indicator A5 How does educational attainment affect participation

in the labour market? .......88

Table A5.1. Employment rates of 25-64 year-olds, by educational attainment (2016)...............100

Table A5.2. Trends in employment rates of 25-34 year-olds, by educational attainment

(2000,2005,2010,2015 and 2016) ............101

Table A5.3. Employment rates of tertiary-educated 25-64 year-olds, by field of study (2016) ........102

Table A5.4. Employment, unemployment and inactivity rates of 25-34 year-olds,

byeducationalattainment (2016) .......103

Indicator A6 What are the earnings advantages from education? ......104

Table A6.1. Relative earnings of workers, by educational attainment (2015) .......114

Table A6.2. Level of earnings relative to median earnings, by educational attainment (2015) ........115

Table A6.3. Differences in earnings between female and male workers,

byeducationalattainmentandagegroup(2015)........116

Indicator A7 What are the financial incentives to invest ineducation? ...........118

Table A7.1a. Private costs and benefits for a man attaining tertiary education (2013) .....129

Table A7.1b. Private costs and benefits for a woman attaining tertiary education (2013) .......130

Table A7.2a. Public costs and benefits for a man attaining tertiary education (2013) ........131

Table A7.2b. Public costs and benefits for a woman attaining tertiary education (2013) ..........132

Table A7.3a. Private/public costs and benefits for a man attaining tertiary education,

byleveloftertiaryeducation(2013) ...........133

Table A7.3b. Private/public costs and benefits for a woman attaining tertiary education,

byleveloftertiaryeducation(2013) ...........134

Indicator A8 How are social outcomes related to education? ...........136

Table A8.1. Percentage of adults who report having depression,

bygender,agegroupandeducationalattainment(2014) ......147

Table A8.2. Percentage of adults who report havingdepression,

bylabour-forcestatusandeducationalattainment(2014) ..............148

Table A8.3. Changes in the likelihood of reporting having depression,

byeducationalattainmentandlabourforcestatus(2014) ..............149

Indicator A9 How many students complete upper secondary education? .....152

Table A9.1. Completion rate of upper secondary education, by programme orientation

and gender (2015) ......162

Table A9.2. Distribution of entrants to upper secondary education, by programme orientation

andoutcomes after theoretical duration and after the theoretical duration

plus two years (2015) ..........163

CHAPTER B FINANCIAL AND HUMANRESOURCES INVESTEDINEDUCATION ............165

Indicator B1 How much is spent per student? .............168

Table B1.1. Annual expenditure per student by educational institutions for all services

(2014) .........177

Table B1.2. Annual expenditure per student by educational institutions for core educational

services, ancillary services and R&D (2014) ...........178

Table B1.3. Change in expenditure per student by educational institutions for all services,

relativetodifferent factors by levels of education (2008, 2011, 2014) .............179

Indicator B2 What proportion of national wealth is spent oneducational institutions? ......180

Table B2.1. Expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP, by level

of education (2014) ...............187

Table B2.2. Trends in expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP,

bylevelofeducation(2005,2010to2014) ..............188

Table B2.3. Expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP,

bysourceoffundingandlevelofeducation(2014) .............189

Indicator B3 How much public and private investment oneducational institutions

is there? ............190

Table B3.1a. Relative proportions of public and private expenditure on educational institutions,

bylevelof education (2014) .............197

Table B3.1b. Relative proportions of disaggregated public and private expenditure

oneducationalinstitutions, by level of education (2014) ......198

Table B3.2a. Trends in the relative proportion of public expenditure on educationalinstitutions

and index of change in public and private expenditure, at primary, secondary,

post-secondarynon-tertiarylevel (2005, 2008, 2011 to 2014) ............199

Table B3.2b. Trends in the relative proportion of public expenditure on tertiary educational

institutions and index of change in public and private expenditure

(2005, 2008, 2011 to 2014) ..............200

Indicator B4 What is the total public spending on education? ......202

Table B4.1. Total public expenditure on education (2014)......209

Table B4.2. Trends in total public expenditure on primary to tertiary education

(2005,2008,2010to2014) ..............210

Table B4.3. Share of sources of public funds by level of government (2014)..........211

Indicator B5 How much do tertiary students pay andwhatpublic support do they receive? ..........212

Table B5.1. Estimated annual average tuition fees charged by tertiary educational institutions

(2015/16) ..........220

Table B5.3. Average tuition fees charged by tertiary public and private institutions,by field of study (2015/16) .....222

Table B5.4. Distribution of financial support to students (2015/16) ........223

Indicator B6 On what resources and services is education funding spent? ...........224

Table B6.1. Share of current and capital expenditure by education level (2014) ..........230

Table B6.2. Current expenditure by resource category (2014) ......231

Table B6.3. Share of current expenditure by resource category and type of institution (2014) ......232

Indicator B7 Which factors influence the level of expenditure on education? ............234

Table B7.1. Salary cost of teachers per student, by level of education (2010 and 2015) ..........244

Table B7.2. Contribution of various factors to salary cost of teachers per student

inprimaryeducation(2015) ...........245

Table B7.3. Contribution of various factors to salary cost of teachers per student

inlowersecondaryeducation (2015) .........246

CHAPTER C ACCESS TO EDUCATION, PARTICIPATION ANDPROGRESSION ..........247

Indicator C1 Who participates in education? .....248

Table C1.1. Enrolment rates by age group (2005 and 2015) ............256

Table C1.2. Students enrolled as a percentage of the population between the ages

of 15 and 20 (2005 and 2015) .......257

Table C1.3. Enrolment in upper secondary education, by programme orientation

and age group (2015) ..........258

Indicator C2 How do early childhood education systems differ around the world? ........260

Table C2.1. Enrolment rates in early childhood and primary education, by age

(2005 and 2015) .............269

Table C2.2. Characteristics of early childhood educational development programmes

andpre-primaryeducation (2015) .....270

Table C2.3. Expenditure on early childhood educational institutions (2014) .......271

Indicator C3 Who is expected to enter tertiary education? .....272

Table C3.1. Share of new entrants to tertiary education, by field of study

and gender (2015) ........282

Table C3.2. Profile of first-time entrants into tertiary education (2015) ........283

Table C3.3. First-time entry rates, by tertiary level (2015) ...............284

Indicator C4 What is the profile of internationally mobilestudents? .....286

Table C4.1. International student mobility and foreign students in tertiary education

(2015) .........300

Table C4.2. Share of tertiary students enrolled in broad fields of study,

by mobility status (2015)..........301

Table C4.3. Mobility patterns of foreign and international students (2015) .........302

Indicator C5 Transition from school to work: wherearethe15-29 year-olds? ...........304

Table C5.1. Percentage of 18-24 year-olds in education/not in study,

by work status (2016).........312

Table C5.2. Trends in the percentage of young adults in education/not in education,

employedornot, by age (2000, 2005, 2010, 2015 and 2016) ......313

Indicator C6 How many adults participate in education andlearning? ............316

Table C6.1a. Participation in formal and/or non-formal education (2012 or 2015) ..............327

Table C6.1b. Willingness to participate in formal and/or non-formal education andbarriers

toparticipation(2012or2015) ..............328

Table C6.2a. Participation in formal and/or non-formal education, by age group

andwhetherthereareyoungchildreninthehousehold(2012or2015) ........329

Table C6.2b. Participation in formal and/or non-formal education, bygender

andwhetherthereareyoungchildreninthehousehold(2012or2015) ........330

Table C6.3a. Participation in formal and/or non-formal education, bylabour-forcestatus

andparticipationinvolunteeringactivities (2012 or 2015) ..........331

Table C6.3b. Participation in formal and/or non-formal education, byagegroup

andparticipationinvolunteeringactivities(2012or2015) ..........332

CHAPTER D THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT ANDORGANISATION OFSCHOOLS ..............333

Indicator D1 How much time do students spend in the classroom? ............334

Table D1.1. Instruction time in compulsory general education (2017) ...............345

Table D1.2. Organisation of compulsory general education (2017)..............347

Table D1.3a. Instruction time per subject in primary education (2017) ...............348

Table D1.3b. Instruction time per subject in general lower secondary education (2017) ...........349

Indicator D2 What is the student-teacher ratio and howbigareclasses? .....350

Table D2.1. Average class size by type of institution (2015) ............357

Table D2.2. Ratio of students to teaching staff in educational institutions (2015) ..............358

Table D2.3. Ratio of students to teaching staff, by type of institution (2015) .....359

Indicator D3 How much are teachers paid? ...........360

Table D3.1a. Teachers’ statutory salaries, based on typical qualifications, atdifferentpoints

inteachers’careers(2015) ......374

Table D3.2a. Teachers’ actual salaries relative to wages of tertiary-educated workers (2015) .........375

Table D3.4. Average actual teachers’ salaries, by age group and by gender (2015) .....376

Indicator D4 How much time do teachers spend teaching? ......378

Table D4.1. Organisation of teachers’ working time (2015) .............388

Table D4.2. Number of teaching hours per year (2000, 2005 to 2015) ...............389

Table D4.3. Tasks and responsibilities of teachers, by level of education (2015) ..........390

Indicator D5 Who are the teachers? ............392

Table D5.1. Age distribution of teachers (2005 and 2015) ..............399

Table D5.2. Gender distribution of teachers (2015) ............400

Table D5.3. Gender distribution of teachers (2005 and 2015) ............401

Indicator D6 What are the national criteria for students toapply to and enter into tertiary education? ......402

Table D6.1. Organisation of the admission system to first-degree tertiary programmes

(2017) .........411

Table D6.3. Minimum qualification and academic performance requirements for entry

intotertiaryeducation(governmentperspective)(2017) .....413

Table D6.4. Application process for entry into first-degree tertiary programmes (2017) .......414

Table D6.5. Use of examinations/tests to determine entry/admission

intofirst-degreetertiaryprogrammes (2017) ......415

ANNEX 1 CHARACTERISTICS OF EDUCATION SYSTEMS .........417

Table X1.1a. Typical graduation ages, by level of education (2015) ......418

Table X1.1b. Typical age of entry by level of education (2015) ........420

Table X1.2a. School year and financial year used for the calculation of indicators,

OECD countries .............421

Table X1.2b. School year and financial year used for the calculation of indicators,

partner countries .........422

Table X1.3. Starting and ending age for students in compulsory education (2015) ............423

ANNEX 2 REFERENCE STATISTICS .............425

Table X2.1. Basic reference statistics (reference period: calendar year 2014 and 2015) ...........426

Table X2.2. Basic reference statistics (reference period: calendar year 2005, 2008, 2010, 2011,

2012, 2013 current prices) .....427

Table X2.3. Basic reference statistics (reference period: calendar year 2005, 2008, 2010, 2011,

2012, 2013 in constant prices of 2014) .............429

Table X2.4a. Teachers’ statutory salaries at different points in their careers, forteachers

withtypicalqualification(2015) ...........431

Table X2.4b. Teachers’ statutory salaries at different points in their careers, forteachers

withminimumqualification(2015) ............433

Table X2.4e. Reference statistics used in calculating teachers’ salaries (2000, 2005 to 2015) ........435

Table X2.4f. Trends in average teachers’ actual salaries, in national currency

(2000,2005,2010to2015) ..............436

Table X2.5. Teachers with 15 years of experience, by level of qualification (2015) ..............438

Table X2.6. Percentage of pre-primary, primary, lower secondary and upper secondary teachers,

bylevelofattainment(2015) .........439

ANNEX 3 SOURCES, METHODS AND TECHNICAL NOTES ......441

Contributors to this publication ...........443

Education Indicators in Focus ........449


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